Domestic fiction, English -- 19th century -- History and criticism (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, c), by Anna Neill (PDF at Ohio State); [Info]. Course Description: The course is to cover, as extensively as possible, the British novel of the Victorian era. The major aim is to illustrate the way in which the. 19th-Century British Novel (see also Romantics) University of Virginia Rare Book School; "Jane Eyre Gone Goth" on gaalmapat.site (pdf or read.
The English novel is an important part of English literature.
This article mainly concerns novels, written in English, by novelists who were born or have spent a significant part of their lives in England, or Scotland, or Wales, or Northern Ireland or Ireland before However, given the nature of the subject, this guideline has been applied with common sense, and reference is made to novels in other languages or novelists who are not primarily British where appropriate.
Other major 18th-century English novelists are Samuel Richardson —author of the epistolary novels Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded and Clarissa —48 ; Henry Fielding —who wrote Joseph Andrews and The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling ; Laurence Sterne —who published Tristram Shandy in parts between and ;  Oliver Goldsmith —author of The Vicar of Wakefield ; Tobias Smollett —a Scottish novelist best known for his comic picaresque novelssuch as The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle and The Expedition of Humphry Clinkerwho influenced Charles Dickens ;  and Fanny Burney —whose novels "were enjoyed and admired by Jane Austen," wrote EvelinaCecilia and Camilla A noteworthy aspect of both the 18th- and 19th- century novel is the way the novelist directly addressed the reader.
For example, the author might interrupt his or her narrative to pass judgment on a character, or pity or praise another, and inform or remind the reader of some other relevant issue. The phrase Romantic novel has several possible meanings.
Here it refers to novels written during the Romantic era in literary history, which runs from the late 18th century until the beginning of the Victorian era in But to complicate matters there are novels written in the romance tradition by novelists like Walter ScottNathaniel HawthorneGeorge Meredith. The word gothic was originally used in the sense of medieval. Her most popular and influential work, The Mysteries of Udolphois frequently described as the archetypal Gothic novel.
Vathekby William Beckfordand The Monkby Matthew Lewiswere further notable early works in both the Gothic and horror genres. Mary Shelley 's novel Frankensteinas another important Gothic novel as well as being an early example of science fiction.
This short story was inspired by the life of Lord Byron and his poem The Giaour. An important later work is Varney the Vampirewhere many standard vampire conventions originated: Varney has fangs, leaves two puncture wounds on the neck of his victims, and has hypnotic powers and superhuman strength.
Varney was also the first example of the "sympathetic vampire", who loathes his condition but is a slave to it. Among more minor novelists in this period Maria Edgeworth — and Thomas Love Peacock — are worthy of comment. Edgeworth's novel Castle Rackrent is "the first fully developed regional novel in English" as well as "the first true historical novel in English" and an important influence on Walter Scott. Jane Austen 's — works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century realism.
She reveals not only the difficulties women faced in her day, but also what was expected of men and of the careers they had to follow.
This she does with wit and humour and with endings where all characters, good or bad, receive exactly what they deserve.
Her work brought her little personal fame and only a few positive reviews during her lifetime, but the publication in of her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced her to a wider public, and by the s she had become accepted as a major writer. The second half of the 20th century saw a proliferation of Austen scholarship and the emergence of a Janeite fan culture.
The other major novelist at the beginning of the early 19th century was Sir Walter Scott —who was not only a highly successful British novelist but "the greatest single influence on fiction in the 19th century It was in the Victorian era — that the novel became the leading literary genre in English. Another important fact is the number of women novelists who were successful in the 19th century, even though they often had to use a masculine pseudonym.
At the beginning of the 19th century most novels were published in three volumes. However, monthly serialization was revived with the publication of Charles Dickens' Pickwick Papers in twenty parts between April and November Demand was high for each episode to introduce some new element, whether it was a plot twist or a new character, so as to maintain the readers' interest. Both Dickens and Thackeray frequently published this way.
The s and s saw the rise of social novelalso known as social problem novel, that "arose out of the social and political upheavals which followed the Reform Act of ". An early example is Charles Dickens ' Oliver Twist — Charles Dickens emerged on the literary scene in the s with the two novels already mentioned.
Dickens wrote vividly about London life and struggles of the poor, but in a good-humoured fashion, accessible to readers of all classes. One of his most popular works to this day is A Christmas Carol An early rival to Dickens was William Makepeace Thackeraywho during the Victorian period ranked second only to him, but he is now much less read and is known almost exclusively for Vanity Fair In that novel he satirizes whole swaths of humanity while retaining a light touch.
It features his most memorable character, the engagingly roguish Becky Sharp. Their novels caused a sensation when they were first published but were subsequently accepted as classics. They had written compulsively from early childhood and were first published, at their own expense in as poets under the pseudonyms Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell. Elizabeth Gaskell was also a successful writer and first novel, Mary Bartonwas published anonymously in Gaskell's North and South contrasts the lifestyle in the industrial north of England with the wealthier south.
Even though her writing conforms to Victorian conventions, Gaskell usually frames her stories as critiques of contemporary attitudes: her early works focused on factory work in the Midlands. She always emphasised the role of women, with complex narratives and dynamic female characters.
Anthony Trollope —82 was one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. Some of his best-loved works are set in the imaginary county of Barsetshireincluding The Warden and Barchester Towers He also wrote perceptive novels on political, social, and gender issues, and on other topical matters, including The Way with Live Now Trollope's novels portrayed the lives of the landowning and professional classes of early Victorian England.
Her works, especially Middlemarch —72are important examples of literary realismand are admired for their combination of high Victorian literary detail combined with an intellectual breadth that removes them from the narrow geographic confines they often depict.
An interest in rural matters and the changing social and economic situation of the countryside is seen in the novels of Thomas Hardy — A Victorian realist, in the tradition of George Eliothe was also influenced both in his novels and poetry by Romanticismespecially by William Wordsworth. While Hardy wrote poetry throughout his life, and regarded himself primarily as a poet, his first collection was not published untilso that initially he gained fame as the author of such novels as, Far from the Madding CrowdThe Mayor of CasterbridgeTess of the d'Urbervillesand Jude the Obscure He ceased writing novels following adverse criticism of this last novel.
In novels such as The Mayor of Casterbridge and Tess of the d'Urbervilles Hardy attempts to create modern works in the genre of tragedythat are modelled on the Greek drama, especially Aeschylus and Sophoclesthough in prose, not poetry, a novel not drama, and with characters of low social standing, not nobility. His best known novel is New Grub Street Important developments occurred in genre fiction in this era. Although pre-dated by John Ruskin 's The King of the Golden River inthe history of the modern fantasy genre is generally said to begin with George MacDonaldthe influential author of The Princess and the Goblin and Phantastes William Morris was a popular English poet who also wrote several fantasy novels during the latter part of the nineteenth century.
Wilkie Collins ' epistolary novel The Moonstoneis generally considered the first detective novel in the English language, while The Woman in White is regarded as one of the finest sensation novels.
Wells 's — writing career began in the s with science fiction novels like The Time Machineand The War of the Worlds which describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martiansand Wells is seen, along with Frenchman Jules Verne —as a major figure in the development of the science fiction genre.
He also wrote realistic fiction about the lower middle class in novels like Kipps and The History of Mr Polly The major novelists writing in Britain at the start of the 20th century were an Irishman James Joyce — and two immigrants, American Henry James — and Pole Joseph Conrad — [ citation needed ].
The modernist tradition in the novel, with its emphasis "towards the ever more minute and analytic exposition of mental life", begins with James and Conrad, in novels such as The AmbassadorsThe Golden Bowl and Lord Jim Lawrence —who wrote with understanding about the social life of the lower and middle classes, and the personal life of those who could not adapt to the social norms of his time.
Sons and Loversis widely regarded as his earliest masterpiece. There followed The Rainbowthough it was immediately seized by the police, and its sequel Women in Love published in However, the unexpurgated version of this novel was not published until Ulysses has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement".
Another significant modernist in the s was Virginia Woolf —who was an influential feminist and a major stylistic innovator associated with the stream-of-consciousness technique. Her essay collection A Room of One's Own contains her famous dictum; "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction".
But while modernism was to become an important literary movement in the early decades of the new century, there were also many fine novelists who were not modernists. This include E. Wells — Though Forster's work is "frequently regarded as containing both modernist and Victorian elements".
Forster 's A Passage to Indiareflected challenges to imperialism, while his earlier works such as A Room with a View and Howards Endexamined the restrictions and hypocrisy of Edwardian society in England. The most popular British writer of the early years of the 20th century was arguably Rudyard Kipling —a highly versatile writer of novelsshort stories and poems and to date the youngest ever recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature A significant English writer in the s and s was George Orwell —50who is especially remembered for his satires of totalitarianism, Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm Evelyn Waugh —66 satirised the "bright young things" of the s and s, notably in A Handful of Dustand Decline and Fallwhile Brideshead Revisited has a theological basis, setting out to examine the effect of divine grace on its main characters.
Samuel Beckett —89 published his first major work, the novel Murphy in This same year Graham Greene 's —91 first major novel Brighton Rock was published. Then in James Joyce published Finnegans Wake.
English literature -- 19th century -- History and criticism
In this work Joyce creates a special language to express the consciousness of a character who is dreaming. Graham Greene was an important novelist whose works span the s to the s. Greene was a convert to Catholicism and his novels explore the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world. Evelyn Waugh 's —66 career also continued after World War II, and in " he completed his most considerable work, a trilogy about the war entitled Sword of Honour.
One of the most influential novels of the immediate post-war period was William Cooper 's — naturalistic Scenes from Provincial Lifewhich was a conscious rejection of the modernist tradition. Scottish writer Muriel Spark 's also began publishing in the s. She pushed the boundaries of realism in her novels. Her first, The Comfortersconcerns a woman who becomes aware that she is a character in a novel; The Prime of Miss Jean Brodieat times takes the reader briefly into the distant future to see the various fates that befall its characters.
Anthony Burgess is especially remembered for his dystopian novel A Clockwork Orangeset in the not-too-distant future, which was made into a film by Stanley Kubrick in In the entirely different genre of Gothic fantasy Mervyn Peake —68 published his highly successful Gormenghast trilogy between and Immigrant authors played a major role in post-war literature.
She initially wrote about her African experiences. Lessing soon became a dominant presence in the English literary scene, frequently publishing right through the century, and won the Nobel prize for literature in Salman Rushdie born is another among a number of post Second World War writers from the former British colonies who permanently settled in Britain.
His most controversial novel The Satanic Verseswas inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. Naipaul won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Another important immigrant writer Kazuo Ishiguro born was born in Japanbut his parents immigrated to Britain when he was six. Scotland has in the late 20th-century produced several important novelists, including James Kelman bornwho like Samuel Beckett can create humour out of the most grim situations.