Those books that were saved in the cart made Ibn Taymiyyah a scholar, He started writing this book after Asr and it was completed by Magrib! by Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Halim Ibn Taymiyyah | Rebuttal of the Logicians (Great Books of Islamic Civilization) Diseases of the Heart and Their Cures: Written by Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah, Edition, Publisher. by Aboo az-Zubayr 'Abdur-Rahmaan Harris (Translator) Ibn Taymiyyah Exp (Imaam Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen) (Author) and.
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- Ibn Taymiyyah
A polarising figure in his own times and in the centuries that followed,   Ibn Taymiyyah has become one of the most influential medieval writers in contemporary Islam,  where his particular interpretations of the Qur'an and the Sunnah and his rejection of some aspects of classical Islamic tradition are believed to have had considerable influence on contemporary ultra-conservative ideologies such as WahhabismSalafismand Jihadism.
Ibn Taymiyyah's name is unusual in that it is derived from a female member of his family as opposed to a male member, which was the normal custom at the time and still is now. Taymiyyah was a promine woman, famous for her scholarship and piety and the name Ibn Taymiyyah was taken up by many of her male descendants.
Ibn Taymiyyah had a simple life, most of which he dedicated to learning, writing, and teaching. He never married nor did he have a female companion, throughout his years. Michot gives five reasons as to why Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned, they being: not complying with the "doctrines and practices prevalent among powerful religious and Sufi establishments, an overly outspoken personality, the jealousy of his peers, the risk to public order due to this popular appeal and political intrigues.
Ibn Taymiyyah's own relationship, as a religious scholar, with the ruling apparatus, who did deviate in application of shari'a law, was not always amicable. Ernst and Richard C. InIbn Taymiyyah, at the age of seven together with his father and three brothers left the city of Harran which was completely destroyed by the ensuing Mongol invasion. In Damascus, his father served as the director of the Sukkariyya madrasa, a place where Ibn Taymiyyah also received his early education.
His religious studies began in his early teens, when he committed the entire Qur'an to memory and later on came to learn the Islamic disciplines of the Qur'an. The number of scholars under which he studied Hadith is said to number more than two hundred,    four of whom were women. After his father died inhe took up the then vacant post as the head of the Sukkariyya madrasa and began giving lessons on Hadith.
The Hanbali school was seen as the most traditional school out of the four legal systems HanafiMaliki and Shafii because it was "suspicious of the Hellenist disciplines of philosophy and speculative theology.
Ibn Taymiyyah's emergence into the public and political sphere began in at the age of 30, when he was asked by the authorities to give an Islamic legal verdict Fatwa on Assaf al-Nasrani, a Christian cleric accused of insulting Muhammad. A few years later inhe took over the position of one of his teachers Zayn al-Din Ibn al-Munadjdjaaltaking the post of professor of Hanbali jurisprudence at the Hanbaliyya madrasa, the oldest such institution of this tradition in Damascus.
Ibn Taymiyyah collaborated once more with the Mamluks inwhen he joined the expedition against the Alawites and Shiitesin the Kasrawan region of the Lebanese mountains. The first invasion took place between December and April due to the military campaign by the Mamluks against the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia who were allied with the Mongols. It is reported that none of the scholars said anything to the Khan except Ibn Taymiyyah who said:.
You claim that you are Muslim and you have with you Mu'adhdhinsMuftisImams and Shaykhs but you invaded us and reached our country for what? While your father and your grandfather, Hulagu were non-believers, they did not attack and they kept their promise.
But you promised and broke your promise. By early Januarythe Mongol allies, the Armenians and Georgians, had caused widespread damage to Damascus and they had taken Syrian prisoners. The second invasion lasted between October and January The year saw the third Mongol invasion of Syria by Ghazan Khan.
Ibn Taymiyyah declared that jihad against the Mongol attack on the Malmuk sultanate was not only permissible, but obligatory. Because of this, he reasoned they were living in a state of jahiliyyahor pre-Islamic pagan ignorance.
Ibn Taymiyyah called on the Muslims to Jihad once again and he also personally joined the eventual battle of Marj al-Saffar against the Mongol army. Ibn Taymiyah was imprisoned several times for conflicting with the ijma of jurists and theologians of his day. The first hearing was held with the Shafii scholars who accused Ibn Taymiyyah of anthropomorphism.
He was protected by the then Governor of Damascus, Aqqush al-Afram, during the proceedings. Two separate councils were held a year later on 22 and 28 of January After his release in Damascus, the doubts regarding his creed seemed to have resolved but this was not the case. On arrival of Ibn Taymiyyah and the Shafi'ite scholar in Cairo inan open meeting was held.
Ibn Taymiyyah and 428 fatwa entitled “kill him/her if he did not repent”
During the Munazara his views on divine attributes, specifically whether a direction could be attributed to God, were debated by the Indian Scholar Safi al-Din al-Hindi, in the presence of Islamic judges.
Ibn Taymiyyah continued to face troubles for his views which were found to be at odds with those of his contemporaries. At the time, the people did not restrict intercession to just the day of judgement but rather they said it was allowed in other cases. Due to this Ibn Taymiyyah, now 45, was ordered to appear before the Shafii judge Badr al-Din in March and was questioned on his stance regarding intercession.
The year after his release in saw a change of power to a new Sultan in Egypt, Baibars al-Jashnakir whose reign was marked by economical and political unrest. During this time, in AugustIbn Taymiyyah was taken into custody and placed under house arrest for seven months in the new sultan's palace in Alexandria.
He spent his last fifteen years in Damascus. Ibn Taymiyyah at the age of 50 returned to Damascus on 28 February by way of Jerusalem. In Damascus Ibn Taymiyyah continued his teaching role as professor of Hanbali fiqh.
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This is when he taught his most famous student, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyawho went on to become a noted scholar in Islamic history. Three years after his arrival in the city, Ibn Taymiyyah became involved in efforts to deal with the increasing Shia influence amongst Sunni Muslims.
InIbn Taymiyyah wrote a treatise that would curtail the ease with which a Muslim man could divorce his wife. Ibn Taymiyyah's fatwa on divorce was not accepted by the majority of scholars of the time and this continued into the Ottoman era. His view on the issue was at odds with the Hanbali doctrine. According to the scholars of the time, an oath of divorce counted as a full divorce and they were also of the view that three oaths of divorce taken under one occasion counted as three separate divorces.
Due to his views and also by not abiding to the sultan's letter two years before forbidding him from issuing a fatwa on the issue, three council hearings were held, in as many yearsandto deal with this matter. Ibn Taymiyyah referred to prison as "a divine blessing".
Ibn Taymiyyah fell ill in early September and died at the age of 65, on 26 September of that year, whilst in prison at the Citadel in Damascus. His brother Sharafuddin had been buried in that cemetery before him. Oliver Leaman says that being deprived of the means of writing led to Ibn Taymiyyah's death.
Ibn Taymiyya is said to have "spent a lifetime objecting to tomb veneration, only to cast a more powerful posthumous spell than any of his Sufi contemporaries.
Such was Ibn Taymiyyah…
His grave alone was left untouched after the Arab demolition teams "insisted" that his grave "was too holy to touch. Among those Ibn Taymiyyah taught, some went on to become accomplished Islamic Scholars. His other students include:    . Many scholars have argued that Ibn Taymiyyah did not enjoy popularity among the intelligentsia of his day.
He was also a renowned scholar of Islam whose influence was felt not only during his lifetime but extended through the centuries until the present day. In the pre-modern era, Ibn Taymiyyah was considered a controversial figure within Sunni Islam and had a number of critics during his life and in the centuries thereafter. Make sure you do not listen to what is in the books of Ibn Taymiyya and his student Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and other such people who have taken their own whim as their God, and who have been led astray by God, and whose hearts and ears have been sealed, and whose eyes have been covered by Him May God forsake the one who follows them, and purify the earth of their likes.
Ibn Taymiyya is a servant whom God has forsaken, led astray, made blind and deaf, and degraded. Such is the explicit verdict of the leading scholars who have exposed the rottenness of his ways and the errors of his statements.
Taqi al-Din al-Hisni condemned Ibn Taymiyya in even stronger terms by referring to him as the "heretic from Harran"  and similarly, Munawi considered Ibn Taymiyyah to be an innovator though not an unbeliever.
Ibn Taymiyyah's works served as an inspiration for later Muslim scholars and historical figures, who have been regarded as his admirers or disciples. Politics portal. Ibn Taymiyyah was taught by scholars who were renowned in their time.
His work was most influenced by the sayings and actions of the Salaf first 3 generation of Muslims and this showed in his work where he would give preference to the Salaf over his contemporaries. In what may justifiably be described as an unscrupulous attempt of magnifying the purported influence of Ibn Taymiyyah on Jewish theology, the claim of the late Pakistani Islamic scholar Mawdudi deserves to be mentioned; if only for the purpose of correcting the published record.
In neither of the mentioned writings does Goldziher say anything amounting to what Mawdudi attributed to him in his above-cited claim. What Goldziher did write was the following:.
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Ibn Taymiyyah] is a zealous adversary of Greek philosophy, Judaism, and Christianity. By way of inciting the Muslims against them, he pointed to the Mongol invasion which had just swept over Syria, asserting that the visitation was in part due to the laxity of his co-religionists. He issued a fatwa demanding that the Jewish synagogues in Cairo should be destroyed, and urging his people not to allow the chapels of other faiths to exist in their midst Ibn Taymiyyah said that God should be described as he has described himself in the Qur'an and the way Prophet Muhammad has described God in the Hadith.
InIbn Taymiyyah wrote the book Al-Aqida al-hamawiyya al-kubra, which dealt with, among other topics, theology and creed. He faced considerable hostility towards these views from the Ash'ari's of whom the most notable were, Taqi al-Din al-Subki and his son Taj al-Din al-Subki who were influential Islamic jurists and also chief judge of Damascus in their respective times.
Ibn Taymiyyah held the belief that Hell was not eternal even for unbelievers.
Like all Islamic jurists Ibn Taymiyyah believed in a hierarchy sources for the Sharia. Most important was the Quran, and the sunnah or any other source could not abrogate a verse of the Qur'an. Concerning Consensus ijmahe believed that consensus of any Muslims other than that of the companions of Muhammad could not be "realistically verifiable" and so was speculative,  and thus not a legitimate source of Islamic law except in certain circumstances.
An example of Ibn Taymiyyah use of his interpretation was in defense of the temporary closing of all Christian churches in in the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The closing was in violation of a year-old covenant with Christian dhimmi known as the Pact of Umar. But as Ibn Taymiyyah pointed out, while venerable, the pact was written 60 years or so after the time of the companions and so had no legal effect. Ibn Taymiyyah considered the use of analogy qiyas based on literal meaning of scripture as a valid source for deriving legal rulings.
He argues that concepts founded on induction are themselves not certain but only probable, and thus a syllogism based on such concepts is no more certain than an argument based on analogy.
He further claimed that induction itself depends on a process of analogy. His model of analogical reasoning was based on that of juridical arguments. Sowa have, for example, have used Ibn Taymiyyah's model of analogy.
There were some jurists who thought rulings derived through analogy could contradict a ruling derived from the Qur'an and the authentic hadith. An example of Ibn Taymiyyah's use of analogy was in a fatwa forbidding the use of hashish one the grounds that it was analogous to wine, and users should be given 80 lashes in punishment. Allaah knows the intention of the supplicant and what he wants, no matter what language he speaks, because He hears all the voices in all different languages, asking for all kinds of needs.
This view was also shared by an earlier theologian and jurist, Abu Hanifa. Issues surrounding the use of reason 'Aql and rational came about in relation to the attributes of God for which he faced much resistance. Ibn Taymiyyah had mastered the grammar of Arabic and one of the books which he studied was the book of Arabic grammar called Al-Kitab, by Sibawayh. He committed eighty mistakes in his book which are not intelligible to you.
Ibn Taymiyyah censured the scholars for blindly conforming to the precedence of early jurists without any resort to the Qur'an and Sunnah.