Handbook of ethological methods yahoo

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gaalmapat.site Ethological research on sociability and culture in the animal world has boomed in the last half century. We will now focus more narrowly on ethology's approach to social behavior. In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology, edited by Todd Shackelford and Jennifer​. Handbook of Ethological Methods, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Lyra-Neves RM, Oliveira MAB, Telino-Júnior WR, Santos. It is also suggested that stereotypic behavior may be one method by which captive animals Lehner PN, Handbook of ethological methods.

Color changing and behavioral context in the Amazonian Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae Perciformes. Animal coloration has many functions, and fishes are noted among vertebrates for presenting a wide variety of color patterns. Although in marine fishes the relationship between body coloration and behavioral context is well documented, there's not much information about freshwater fishes.

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Here we describe color patterns displayed by the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae and suggest that these patterns are dependent on different social and behavioral settings. Field observations were conducted underwater in a pond in Central Amazonia, Brazil. We recorded six body coloration patterns related to seven different kinds of behavioral activities: foraging, resting, reproductive and agonistic displays, aggression attacking and fleeing and parental care.

Changes in coloration occur rapidly and take only a few seconds. Females on parental care exhibited a unique pattern that are more persistent and probably manifests more slowly. In the shallow and clear waters of the natural environment of this dwarf cichlid, color communication seems to constitute an efficient way to display information about individual mood, social status and reproductive readiness, contributing to minimize loss of energy in unnecessary interactions.

Animal colors may serve for different functions, such as thermoregulation, camouflage, and intra- and interspecific communication Endler, The chromatophores of fishes are under neurocrine control, so that colors and patterns can be changed almost instantaneously Kodric-Brown, This ability to change colors rapidly is used by fishes to send many kinds of signals in different social and environmental settings Kodric-Brown, Moreover, the expression of different color patterns reflects changes in behavior of fishes, both in spatial and temporal scales.

In marine fishes, DeMartini has described six color patterns, including changes in color, brightness and stains, in the painted greenling Oxylebius pictus Hexagrammidae. Nevertheless, the first behavioral evidence of the ability of fishes to discriminate colors is recent in literature Siebeck et al.

For freshwater species, the knowledge is almost restricted to cichlid fishes. Despite that, rare studies have quantified the relation between color changes and activities executed by fish, although changes in coloration related to mood in cichlids are well documented in aquarium literature e.

As far as we know, there are four studies quantifying coloration patterns of cichlids and associated behaviors. Hulscher-Emeis described the color patterns associated to 33 behaviors, separating them by sex and age class.

Here we describe the color patterns of Apistogramma hippolytaea dwarf cichlid typical of clear and black waters in the Brazilian Central Amazon, aiming to determine how color patterns may be related to distinct behavioral contexts.

The area is part of the Cuieiras River basin, a tributary of the Negro River. The studied pond approximately 40 m long x 14 m wide x 0. The pond is surrounded by primary and secondary tropical rain forest, making a mosaic of trees and shrubs that overhang the pond margins and contribute with organic matter to the aquatic system. Despite the presence of fine sediments the water was clear and enabled good underwater visualization.

Underwater behavioral observations during snorkeling sessions cf.

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Sazima, were conducted in the field at daytime using the "focal animal" and " ad libitum " samplings Lehner,totaling 18 hours of records.

Each individual observation lasted for approximately 15 seconds and included the type of activity feeding, resting, agonistic display, sexual display, attacking or fleeingsex, age juveniles or adultsestimated size of the individuals when involved in intra- or interespecific interactionsand its color pattern.

Quantitative data about behavioral categories and interactions were gathered by a single observer RRR that stayed motionless at a distance from the subjects in order to avoid disturbing the fish Sabino, Frequency of occurrence was employed to quantify the relation between the observed behaviors and the color patterns displayed by the individuals during the observed events.

A total of individual observations of A.

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Estimated size of the observed individuals ranged mm total length. The individuals were observed forming aggregations along the shallow areas of the pond. These aggregations usually were composed by subgroups of individuals, without a cohesive behavioral pattern. This grouping behavior seemed to be elicited mainly by external stimuli e. Rodrigues, pers. Five different patterns of body coloration were recorded in A.

Beyond these five patterns, a color pattern presented exclusively by brood-caring females was also recognized.

The most common color pattern was characterized by a silver-grey background color, with the lateral blotch and suborbital stripe absent or faint Figs. In the second most common pattern, called "stripe-spot" Figs.

The eyes became darker, the suborbital stripe turned faint or absent and the lateral bars in the flanks became visible. This pattern was rarely observed in large males over 60 mm TL. The "painted-face" pattern Figs. The "barred" pattern Fig. The suborbital stripe appeared with different degrees of conspicuousness.

An increase in eye brightness was also noted. This pattern was only observed in five occasions, when individuals were engaged in agonistic display Fig. Males engaged in courtship Fig. This pattern is similar to the "barred" one Fig. Females on parental care exhibited a unique pattern, with the first rays of pelvic and dorsal fins strongly colored in black. Usually the lateral blotch, suborbital stripe and caudal spot were very conspicuous, and the lateral stripe was absent or faint Fig.

The overall grey ground color is substituted by an intense yellow tone Fig. Changes in coloration occurred rapidly in a few seconds.

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For instance, when large male attack an intruder, it changes to "painted-face", drive way the fish and return to the "plain" pattern, less than 20 s. When an agonistic display occurs, the fish involved change of "plain" to "barred" patterns, execute the behavior and then return to "plain" pattern, all this in less than 30 s.

On the other hand, the time needed by broodcaring females to change their coloration pattern was longer not quantified. The "plain" pattern probably constitutes a cryptic coloration, allowing the fish to be confounded with the pond substrate that is composed of light-colored organic debris.

It was the most commonly observed pattern, occurring mainly when the fish were feeding undisturbed. In fact, disturbances in the environment were usually followed by changing to the "stripe-spot" pattern. The combination of spots, stripes and bars, associated with the reduction of the coloration intensity, seems to constitute a disruptive pattern, allowing the fish to stay unnoticed for potential predators Endler, This can be explained by the fact that the vast majority of the observed attacks and escape responses resulted from aggressive interactions butting by larger individuals of A.

In such cases, the individual attacked moved few centimeters away and was not harassed further.

However, continued persecution by large pike cichlids our observationsor sudden disturbances in the nearby environment was immediately followed by change to the "stripe-spot" pattern. This color pattern was also displayed by females during the courtship and may indicate a form of submission, avoiding attacks by persistent, aggressive males Burchard, ; Baldaccini, The very conspicuous suborbital stripe in the "paintedface" pattern seems to represent the main sign of aggression, and was also displayed by females engaged in parental care.

However, our observations indicate that such pattern was displayed predominantly by larger fishes and immediately before attacks by co-specifics. This would represent a warning coloration, indicating the imminence of an agonistic interaction cf. Hurd, The "shining" and "barred" patterns showed a considerable increase in the intensity of the background body color, which could be related to reproductive readiness Neil, a and employed during courtship or in disputes for females, maybe a vigor sign Maan et al.

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The combination of yellow and black marks is recognized as one of the most common warning patterns in animals Endler, ; Neil, a and may be related to the aggressiveness of brood-caring females. The conspicuous black marks on the fins, especially in the pelvics is believed to be related to the mother's communication with their offspring, as already noted by Baldacini and Baerends Studies that examine the physiological mechanisms or evolutionary context involved in the occurrence of color changes expression in Apistogramma species may help to elucidate the general aspects of the natural history of these dwarf cichlids.

Pereira and Sr. Cardoso, for their help during fieldwork. Baerends, G. A comparative study of stimulus selection in the filial following response of fry of substrate spawning cichlid fish. Behaviour, : Baerends van-Roon. An introduction to the study of the ethology of cichlid fishes. Behaviour, 1 Suppl. Baldaccini, N. An ethological study of reproductive behavior including the color patterns of the cichlid fish Tilapia mariae Boulanger.

Monitore Zoologico Italiano, 7: Barlow, G.

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Competition between color morphs of the polychromatic midas cichlid Cichlasoma citrinellum. Science, : Polychromatic Midas cichlids respond to dummy opponents - color, contrast and context. Behaviour, Beeching, S. Color pattern and inhibition of aggression in the cichlid fish Astronotus ocellatus.

Journal of Fish Biology, Gross, H. Sexual dichromatism in convict cichlids: The ethological significance of female ventral coloration. Animal Behaviour, Low seasonal variation of fish assemblages in Amazonian forest streams.

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Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 12 1 : Burchard, J. Family structure in the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma trifasciatum Eigenmann and Kennedy. Zeitschieft fur Tierpsychologie, DeMartini, E.

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  1. Mikara

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