by PCP to develop a consensus-based legal centre, for scholarships, and free books. The balance sheet and revenue accounts of the. Ordinance, , Sales Tax Act, ,. Federal The Act has withdrawn the entitlement for sheet items allowed, at the rate of 1 percent. that share Pakistan's characteristics. As I will show in Part II of the book, Bhutto's retum to political set-up with new legal and political systems produced a highly command of the political situation in Pakistan, able and willing to take decisions the sheet-anchor of our Constitution which specifically pro- vides in its fourth.
- 3 Books Business Law Students MUST Read
- About this book
- Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977
- Table of contents
- Occupational Safety and Health Laws in Pakistan
There is no independent legislation on occupational safety and health issues in Pakistan. The main law, which governs these issues, is the Chapter 3 of Factories Act, All the provinces, under this act, have devised Factories Rules. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh have enacted the Factories legislation in and respectively.
3 Books Business Law Students MUST Read
The Hazardous Occupations Rules, under the authority of Factories Act is another relevant legislation. Chapter 3 of the Factories Act has general provisions on health and safety at the workplace. Provincial governments are allowed to make rules under this Act and inspectors under this Act also have discretion in defining the rules. Chapter 3 talks about various safety arrangements.
This list is being provided just to show how meticulously labor law covers these issues. Disposal of wastes and effluents: Every factory must make effective arrangement for the disposal of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process.
Ventilation and temperature : Effective and suitable provisions must be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every work-room—.
Dust and fume: Every factory must take effective measures to prevent its accumulation in any work-room and its inhalation by workers and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it should be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity.
Artificial humidification: The Government may, in respect of all factories in which humidity of the air is artificially increased, make rules—. Overcrowding: Workplace should not be crowded. Law requires cubic feet of space for every worker in a factory. Drinking Water : Every factory must provide sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water to all employed workers. In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, provision are to be made for cooling the drinking water during the hot weather by effective means.
Latrines and urinals: Every factory must have male and female toilets which are conveniently situated and accessible to workers. Spittoons: Every factory must provide, at convenient places, a sufficient number of spittoons which are maintained in a clean and hygienic condition. Precautions against contagious or infections disease: Every worker must be provided with a hygiene card. The information in this card is updated twice a year January and July after examination by a factory appointed doctor that the worker is not suffering from any contagious or infectious disease.
The medical examination is free for workers and its cost is borne by the employer.
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If a worker is found to be suffering from any contagious or infectious disease on an examination, he cannot be appointed on work till he is declared free of such a disease. Compulsory vaccination and inoculation: Workers must be vaccinated and inoculated against such diseases and at such intervals as may be prescribed These are prescribed as cholera, small pox and typhoid.
The expenses for such vaccination and inoculation are borne by the employer. Power to make rules for provision of canteens: Government may make rules requiring that in any specified factory wherein more than workers are ordinarily employed, an adequate canteen is provided for the use of the workers. The exit doors must not be locked or fastened so that they can be easily and immediately opened from inside while any person is within the room, and all such doors, unless they are of the sliding type, shall be constructed to open outwards.
Every factory must have effective and clearly audible means of giving warning in case of fire to every person employed therein sirens, loud speakers. In every factory wherein more than ten workers are ordinarily employed in any place above the ground floor, or explosive or highly inflammable materials are used or stored, effective measures must be taken to ensure that all the workers are familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and have been adequately trained in the routine to be followed in such case.
The Factories Rules prescribe in respect of any factory, or class or description of factories, the means of escape to be provided in case of fire and the nature and amount of firefighting apparatus to be provided and maintained. Fencing of machinery: In every factory, the following must be securely fenced by the safeguards of substantial construction which are kept in position while the parts of machinery required to be fenced are in motion or in use.
Work on or near machinery in motion: If it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery while the machinery is in motion, or as a result of such examination, to carry out any mounting or shipping of belts, lubrication or other adjusting operation while the machinery is in motion, such examination or operation may be made or carried out only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing.
No woman or child may be allowed in any factory to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of machinery while that part is in motion, or to work between moving parts or between fixed and moving parts of any machinery which is in motion. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines: No child or adolescent- under 17 years can work at any machine unless he has been fully instructed regarding dangers and precautions to be observed.
Pakistan Under Bhutto, 1971–1977
Striking gear and devices for cutting off power: In every factory, suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliances must be provided and maintained and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the transmission machinery.
Such gear or appliances must be so constructed, placed and maintained as to prevent the belt from creeping back on the fast pulleys.
Casing of new machinery: In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory, every set screw, belt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion must be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers: No woman or child can be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work. Cranes and other lifting machinery: There are specific provisions in the law regarding cranes and other lifting machinery.
Hoists and lifts: There are special provisions regarding hoists and lifts and revolving machinery. Floors, stairs and means of access: All floors, stairs, passages and gangways must be of sound construction and properly maintained and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, ladders, passages and gangways must be provided with substantial handrails. Pits, sumps, opening in floors, etc.
Excessive weights: No person shall be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury.
Powers to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability: If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building, or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory, is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may order the manager to show necessary information indicating that the building can be used with safety.
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Safety of building, machinery and manufacturing process: If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant or manufacturing process in a factory is in such a condition that it is dangerous to human health or safety, he may serve on the Manager of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion, should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.
Precautions against dangerous fumes: No person may enter or be permitted to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk of persons being overcome thereby, unless there are effective means of egress. Explosive or inflammable dust, gas, etc.
Additional power to make health and safety rules relating to shelters during rest: A factory where more than workers are ordinarily employed, an adequate shelter must be provided for the use of workers during periods of rest. Rooms for children : A factory where more than 50 women workers are ordinarily employed, a suitable room must be reserved for the use of children under the age of six years belonging to such women. The use of such rooms is restricted to the children, their attendants, and mothers of such children.
Certificates of stability: The Government may require that work on a manufacturing process carried on with the aid of power shall not be begun in any building or part of a building erected or taken into use as a factory until a certificate of stability in the prescribed form, signed by a person possessing the prescribed qualifications, has been sent to the Inspector.
Hazardous operations : If the Government is satisfied that any operation in a factory exposes any persons employed upon it to a serious risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease, it may make rules applicable to any factory or class of factories in which the operation is carried on—.
Similarly, Chapter 5 of the Mines Act provides for various health and safety arrangements. You will find similar provisions in the Pakistan Dock Laborers Regulations for dockworkers. Employment of Children and newly enacted child labour legislation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh also has provisions on maintaining a safe and healthy workplace for children and adolescents.
All the above laws require the appropriate government Federal or Provincial to appoint qualified individuals as inspectors. It is the duty of inspectors to enforce these laws. The usual powers of inspectors include the right to enter and inspect any workplace, taking evidence from persons for carrying out their duties. Various government agencies like National Institute of Labor Administration and Training, Directorate of Workers Education provide training to workers on these issues.
The Centre for Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment CIWCE is a pioneering institution in Pakistan working under the Directorate of Labor Welfare, Punjab which provides training, information and research facilities for promotion of safety, health and better work environment in the industries and businesses. You can also find training materials, safety posters and different safety signs from this Centre.
Pakistan has ratified the following two ILO conventions relating to the special treatment for women and adolescents in the occupational safety and health context.
In accordance with the provision of this convention, article C 1 of Mines Act prohibits the employment of women in any underground mine. Similarly for safety reasons and under the above conventions, labor laws also limit the employment of women and adolescents at night.
Section 45 of Factories Act limits the employment of women up to only p. Section 54 of the Act requires that children over the age of 14 years should not be employed after 07 p. We also find provision on prohibition on employment of children and women in any part of the factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work section The referred section also talks about certain exemptions from this provision.
Similarly, section M authorizes the provincial government to make rules prohibiting the employment of children above the age of fourteen to any specified class of factories or to any specified parts thereof.
Section 28 of the Factories Act also requires that no young person child or adolescent shall operate a machine until he has received sufficient training for operating it and is under adequate supervision by some other person with thorough knowledge and experience of machine.
Moreover, these requirements should also be met before employing young persons on machines that are notified as dangerous by Provincial governments. Note: the term young person has been used collectively for children and adolescents.
The Employment of Children Act defines a child as the one who has not completed fourteen years of age while an adolescent is defined as the one whose age is greater than 14 years but less than 18 years.
Is there any data available on occupational accidents in Pakistan? For further details please see below:. Click here for Urdu Version. What are the laws in Pakistan relating to the issues of occupational safety and health?
Additional power to make health and safety rules relating to shelters during rest: A factory where more than workers are ordinarily employed, an adequate shelter must be provided for the use of workers during periods of rest Rooms for children : A factory where more than 50 women workers are ordinarily employed, a suitable room must be reserved for the use of children under the age of six years belonging to such women. How does government ensure that the above-mentioned provisions are followed at the workplaces?
Occupational Safety and Health Laws in Pakistan
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