Inspire a love of reading with Prime Book Box for Kids Discover delightful children's books with Prime Book Box, a subscription that delivers new books every 1. [PDF]The Human Brain Book: An Illustrated Guide to Its Structure, Function, and Disorders DK, Rita Carter PDF eBook | | Download PDF EPUB Book Free. This article contains The Human Brain Book PDF for free download. This book has been authored by Rita Carter.
- The Human Brain Book by Rita Carter
- Features of The Human Brain Book PDF
- An Illustrated Guide to its Structure, Function, and Disorders
- The Human Brain Book
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This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! All Rights Reserved. He theorized that various faculties were localized in the brain and that the strongest were correspondingly large, making the skull bulge measurably.
It was hugely popular in nineteenth-century America and Europe—nearly every town had a phrenology institute. He found that animal and human behavior could be controlled by pressing a button.
In a famous experiment, conducted inDelgado faced a charging bull, bringing it to a halt at his feet by activating the implant in its brain.
In another, he put a device in the brain of a chimp that was bullying its mate. The operation was overused and is now thought abhorrent. The surgeons, then unaware of the functions of the hippocampus, took out a large area of that part of his brain see p. When he came round, he was unable to lay down new memories and remained so for the rest of his life. The tragic accident demonstrated the crucial role of the hippocampus in recall.
A series of ingenious experiments by US neuroscientist Benjamin Libet see p. They showed that, under certain conditions, each hemisphere could hold different thoughts and intentions.
A group of researchers in Italy, led by Giacomo Rizzolatti, were monitoring neural activity in the brains of monkeys as they made reaching movements. Mirror neurons are thought by some to be the basis of theory of mind, mimicry, and empathy. Imaging technology has now made it possible to look inside a living brain and see it at work.
The brain works by generating tiny electrical charges. Functional imaging reveals which areas are most active. Functional brain imaging is largely about identifying which ones are most concerned with doing what.
This has allowed neuroscientists to build a detailed map of brain functions. We now know where perceptions, language, memory, emotion, and movement occur. By showing how various functions work together, imaging also gives us a glimpse into some of the most sophisticated aspects of human psychology. Imaging the brains of master chess players shows why expertise depends on practice. Watching the brain of a person seeing a frightened face shows that emotion is contagious.
Knowledge of the workings of the living human brain could only be gained by studying people with damaged brains, for example Phineas Gage see p. Everything changed with the invention of brain scanners at the end of the twentieth century. In the following pages, we shall undertake a journey through the brain of a healthy, year-old man revealed by magnetic resonance imaging MRI.
In these images, we can see the many components of the brain. We are starting to understand the function of some of these, but we are only at the very beginning of this journey of understanding. The captions that accompany the scans indicate the most likely function of various brain regions.
The Human Brain Book by Rita Carter
But these regions often have many functions, and these functions depend upon interactions with other brain regions. The scans themselves have been colored, so that the cerebrum appears in red, the cerebellum in light blue, and the brainstem in green. If this activity is sustained for long enough, it will result in a conscious experience. That remains a famously hard problem, which has yet to be cracked see p.
However, much is now known about the brain processes that turn incoming information into the various components of subjective experience, such as thoughts or emotions.
Much depends on where the information comes from. Each sense organ is specialized to deal with a different type of stimulus—the eyes are sensitive to light, the ears to sound waves, and so on.
The sense organs respond to these stimuli in much the same way—they generate electrical signals, which are sent on for further processing. But the information from each organ is sent to a different part of the brain, and then processed along a different neural pathway.
Where information is processed therefore determines what sort of experience it will generate. The brain shrinks as neurons die off and are not replaced. This is obtained from dietary carbohydrate, which is transported to the brain via the bloodstream. It consumes roughly 4oz g of glucose about kcal per day.
Because the brain cannot store glucose, it must be readily available at all times via the blood supply.
Features of The Human Brain Book PDF
Without oxygen or glucose, the brain can last for only about 10 minutes before irreparable damage occurs. This is why prompt resuscitation is needed in cases of cardiac arrest. The bony skull acts as a box, containing the brain and buffering it against blows. The meninges are three layers of membranes that line the skull, enclosing the brain and providing extra layers of protection between the skull and the brain. CSF absorbs shocks from blows to the brain. It contains proteins and glucose to nourish brain cells, as well as white blood cells to protect against infection.
It moves through the ventricles, propelled by the pulsation of the cerebral arteries. The cerebrum, which includes the hippocampus and amygdala, is also known as the telencephalon. Below the forebrain is the midbrain mesencephalona small division that includes groups of nerve-cell bodies known as nuclei, such as the basal ganglia.
Below the midbrain is the hindbrain rhombencephalonwith the pons as its uppermost part, and beneath it the cerebellum and the medulla, which tapers to merge with the spinal cord. The cranial nerves numbered I to XII, see p.
The uppermost brain region, the cerebral cortex, is mostly involved in conscious sensations, abstract thought processes, reasoning, planning, working memory, and similar higher mental processes.
An Illustrated Guide to its Structure, Function, and Disorders
The limbic areas see pp. The thalamus is a preprocessing and relay center, primarily for sensory information coming from lower in the brainstem, bound for the cerebral hemispheres above. The scanning computer can be programmed to exaggerate any subtle departures from an exact mirror image. The lateral sulcus itself is also usually different in shape, being longer and less curved on the left than the right.
The Human Brain Book
This is partly due to a twisting effect known as Yakovlevian torque, which warps the right side of the brain forward. The upper two chambers are the left and right lateral ventricles, one in each cerebral hemisphere, with hornlike forward- and side-facing projections. Small openings connect them to the third ventricle in the midbrain, which in turn links to the fourth ventricle in the pons and medulla.
The putamen and caudate nuclei are together called the dorsal striatum because of the striped or striated appearance of their tissues. They are also immediately above the substantia nigra. The globus pallidus and the putamen are sometimes termed the lentiform or lenticular nucleus.
The C-shaped caudate nuclei above and to the side of the thalamus, and next to the lateral ventricle, have a head part, main body, and tapering tail. They are involved in motor muscle control and also in learning and memory. The rounded putamen, the outermost of the main basal ganglia, partly follows the shape of the caudate nucleus and is intricately linked anatomically to it.
It, too, is heavily involved in motor control and movements, and in learning. The putamen has major nerve connections with the globus pallidus and substantia nigra.
All of the basal ganglia work together as an integrated brain system to help ensure that physical movements are smooth and coordinated. The subthalamic nuclei also have roles in impulsive actions and movement intentions. The thalamus is the major relay station for nerve signals coming from all the senses except smell.
It screens, sorts, and preprocesses this continuing torrent of sensory information and sends it on to the cerebral cortex.
Information from the retinas, about what the eyes see, arrives at the lateral geniculate nuclei. After processing, it passes to the primary visual cortex area 17 and visual association cortex. Working with the lateral geniculate nuclei, each much larger lateral nucleus or pulvinar sends accessory sensory information to several parts of the visual cortex see pp.
Sensory information from the facial skin and interior of the mouth travels along the trigeminal nerve and the trigeminothalamic tract to the medial ventral posterior nuclei. Its secretory cells make hormones called releasing factors that enter the bloodstream, and its neurosecretory cells produce hormonelike substances that travel along nerve axons down to the pituitary gland see below.
For example, the pontine nuclei of the front or ventral pons are involved in learning and remembering motor skills—they act as relay stations for nerve signals from the motor cortex, which are traveling to the cerebellum behind the pons see panel, opposite. I]VaVbjh The brainstem includes almost all of the brain except for the highest parts, which make up the forebrain cerebrum and diencephalon, see p.
Below the midbrain is the hindbrain. At its front is the large bulge of the pons.
The cerebellum joins to the rear of the medulla by three pairs of stalks, known as the cerebellar peduncles. It is also the site of subconscious or autonomic control mechanisms, of which we are usually unaware. The medulla, in particular, houses groups of nuclei that are centers for respiratory breathingcardiac heartbeatand vasomotor blood pressure monitoring and control, as well as for vomiting, sneezing, swallowing, and coughing. The outer layer, or cerebellar cortex, is gray matter composed of nerve-cell bodies and their dendrite projections.
Toward the center are collections of more nerve-cell bodies known as deep cerebellar nuclei. In a cross section at almost any angle through the cerebellum, the white matter between the cortex and deep nuclei forms a complex branching pattern known as the arbor vitae.
Both the extent and the names of the lobes are also partly related to the overlying bones of the skull, known as the neurocranium. For example, the two frontal lobes are approximately beneath the frontal bone, and likewise for the occipital lobes under the occipital bone. In some naming systems, the limbic lobe see p. The overall patterns of gyri and sulci are similar but rarely identical among normal brains—individual variations occur.
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Most of the rest are glial or support cells. They both provide physical support for the amazingly thin dendritic and axonal processes that wind their way around the network, and also supply nutritional support for the neurons in the form of sugars, raw materials for growth and maintenance, and other nutrients.
There are several types of glial cells.